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If your source lacks one of the ingredients in the reference, you can ignore that ingredient and continue. For instance, if your book doesn‟t list an author, you can skip it and go on to the title.
Pay close attention to capitalization and italicized text.
For correct information, such as the book title, place of publication, and publisher, consult the title page of the book (not the book‟s cover). The copyright date is found on the page after the title page, next to the © symbol. For example, © 2009.
Lopez, M. T.
Lopez, M. T., & Fox, J.
Three or more Authors
List each name for up to 19 authors. For 20 or more authors, after the 19th name use an ellipsis (three dots) … then put the final name after the ellipsis.
Organization as Author
Pima Community College.
Skip the author and begin with title.
|Rev. ed.||Revised edition|
|2nd ed.||second edition|
|Ed. (Eds.)||Editor (Editors)|
|Vols.||Volumes (as in Vols. 1-4)|
General format for books
Author Surname, Initials. (Year of publication). Title of book: Subtitle of book. Publisher.
Note: Links can be either active or inactive (ask your instructor if they have a preference)
Book with One Author
Dixon, W. E. (2003). Twenty studies that revolutionized child psychology. Prentice Hall.
Book with Two Authors
Book with Three or More Authors (or Editors)
Knight, C.J., Harwood, C.G., & Gould, D. (Eds.). (2018). Sport psychology for young athletes. Routledge.
List every name for up to 19 authors. For 20 or more authors, after the 19th name use an ellipsis (three dots) … then put the final name after the ellipsis.
Book with Corporate Author
Electronic Book (E-Book)
Hersen, M., & Ammerman, R. T. (Eds.). (2000). Advanced abnormal child psychology (2nd ed.).
Lawrence Erlbaum Associates Publishers. https://doi.org/10.4324/9781410605320
OER (Open Educational Resource) book
DeLancy, C. (2017). A concise introduction to logic. Open Textbook Library. Retrieved July 7, 2020, from https://open.umn.edu/opentextbooks/textbooks/452
Graphic novel / comic book
Sutherland, T. T. (2018). Wings of fire: No. 1. The Dragonet prophecy (M. Holmes, Illus.). Graphix.
Book published in 2nd or subsequent edition
Helfer, M. E., Kempe, R. S., & Krugman, R. D. (1997). The battered child (5th ed.). University of Chicago Press.
Insert edition of book after the title of the book, abbreviating edition with ed.
Book with editor(s) instead of authors.
Torr, J. D. (Ed.). (2004). Crime and criminals. Greenhaven Press.
Berko, A. (2007). The path to paradise: The inner world of suicide bombers and their
dispatchers (E. Yuval, Trans.). Praeger Security International. (Original work published 2004)
Add translator in parentheses after title of book, abbreviating translator with Trans.
ARTICLES OR CHAPTERS WITHIN A BOOK
Work in an anthology or edited book
Brown, G. W. (2000). Emotion and clinical depression: An environmental view. In M.
Lewis & J. M. Haviland-Jones (Eds.), Handbook of emotions (2nd ed., pp. 75-90).
Electronic Article from an Online Dictionary or Encyclopedia
Baran, A., & Lifton, B. (2004). Adoption. In S. G. Post (Ed.), Encyclopedia of bioethics, (Vol. 1, pp. 68-74).
Dictionary or encyclopedia with no author for entry and no date
Only use a Retrieved date for sources which are regularly being updated and therefore do not have a publication date.
Items in green indicate variations in the reference based on the format.