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Citing Sources: Footnotes and endnotes

A guide to citing sources in MLA, APA, and Chicago format.

Footnotes and Endnotes

In the Notes-Bibliography system, your in-text citation will start with a superscipt number at the end of the sentence:
 
"An American invention, the flapper was moulded by fashion influences from Paris and modern advertising."1
 
Then, cite the source of the quotation in a numbered note that provides information about the source.  Notes will be at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or in a list at the end of the paper or at the end of a chapter (endnotes).  All notes have the same general form.
 
1. Stephen Gundle, Glamour, a History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 160.
 
If you are citing the same source consecutively, you can use the term Ibid.  If the source is the same, but the page numbers differ, include the page numbers for the Ibid. note. The Chicago Manual now suggests using the author name instead of Ibid, but does not prohibit Ibid.
 
8. Ibid., 112.
 
If you use another quote from the same source, you can shorten the subsequent notes:
 
5. Gundle, 12.
 
In most cases, sources are also listed in a bibliography at the end of the paper.  It should include every source cited in the notes and possibly research sources which were not cited in notes.   The bibliography repeats much of the same information about research sources found in the notes, but uses a slightly different format.
 

Sample Notes

Sample Notes

Book, single author

     1. Wallace E. Dixon, Twenty Studies that Revolutionized Child Psychology (UpperSaddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003), 110-11.

Book, two or more authors

     1. Erick J. Mash and David A. Wolfe, Abnormal Child Psychology (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1999), 47.

Book without an author

     1. The Good Housekeeping Illustrated Book of Childcare: From Newborn to Preteen (New York: Hearst Books, 1995), 221.

Book with an editor

     1. James D. Torr, ed., Crime and Criminals (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004), 301.

Electronic book

     1. Jay C. Thomas and Michel Hersen, eds., Understanding Research in Clinical and Counseling Psychology (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), 103-4, https://0-doi-org.library2.pima.edu/10/4324/9780203831700.

Note: Chicago recommends that instead of a link/url to a database entry or ebook you use either a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or simply include the name of the database if a DOI cannot be found. However, check with your instructor to determine if they prefer a link.

Book in multiple editions

     1. Ray E. Helfer, Ruth S. Kempe, and Richard D. Krugman, The Battered Child, 5th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 157-58.

Chapter in an anthology or edited book

     1. George W. Brown, "Emotion and Clinical Depression: An Environmental View," in Handbook of Emotions, 2nd ed., ed. Michael Lewis, and Jeanette M. Haviland-Jones (New York: Guilford Press, 1999), 75.

Print journal article

     1. James Griffin, “What Do Happiness Studies Study?," Journal of Happiness Studies 8, no. 1 (March 2007): 139-148.

Newspaper article      1. Sharon Jayson, “Gender Loses its Impact with the Young,” USA Today, June 21, 2014, https://usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2014/06/21/gender-millennials-dormitories-sex/10573099.

Electronic journal article

     1. James Griffin, “What Do Happiness Studies Study?," Journal of Happiness Studies 8, no. 1 (March 2007): 139-148, https://0-doi-or.library2.pima.edu/10.1007/s10902-006-9007-4.

Note: Chicago recommends that instead of a link/url to a database entry or ebook you use either a DOI (Digital Object Identifier) or simply include the name of the database if a DOI cannot be found. However, check with your instructor to determine if they prefer a link.

Websites

     1. Shana Rose, "Multi-talented Student Works Multimedia," Aztec Press, May 8, 2014,  http://aztecpressonline.com/2014/05/multi-talented-Student-works-multimedia/.

Twitter and Facebook

     1. Donald J. Trump (@realDonaldTrump) "Tremendous progress being made on Vaccines and Therapeutics!," Twitter, July 21, 2020, 3:31 a.m., https://twitter.com/realDonaldTrump/status/1285522754129858560.

      1. Pima Arts, “Just an update on these beautiful benches by Hiro Tashima and Jason Butler,” July 21, 2020, https://www.facebook.com/pcccfa/photos/pcb.2673739259505831/2673738919505865/?type=3&theater.

Interview

     1. Jessye Norman, interview by Charlie Rose, Charlie Rose, June 15, 2014,  http://www.charlierose.com/watch/60406195.

Motion picture

     1. The General, directed by Buster Keaton (1927; Allied Artists, 2005), DVD.

Television programs

     1. The Big Bang Theory, season 1, episode 7, "The Dumpling Paradox,” directed by Mark Cendrowski, aired November 5, 2007, on CBS, DVD (Warner Home Video, 2008), disc 1.

Videos

     1. Burning Candles: The Life of Edna St. Vincent Millay, video, International Documentary Television  Corp., 2009, http://digital.films.com/PortalPlaylists.aspx?aid=17517&xtid=43771.

      1. "Alexander Wang: Vogue Voices," Vogue, April 3, 2013, video, 2:10:05, https:youtu.be/9f2wmJjRdcs.

Identation, Spacing and Font

Footnotes and endnotes are idented in the same way as a paragraph:
 
     1. Stephen Gundle, Glamour, a History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 160.
 
Citations in the bibliography have a "hanging indent":
 
Gundle, Stephen. Glamour, a History.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
 
Footnotes and bibliography entries should be single spaced with an extra space between entries. Both footnotes and bibliography entries should be the same font size as the text of the paper.
 

MS Word and Footnotes

Microsoft Word has a handy feature which makes creating footnotes easy. 

Use the References Menu then Insert Footnote.