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Citing Sources: In-text citations

A guide to citing sources in MLA, APA, and Chicago format.

Author-Date System In-text Citations

In-text citations (or parenthetical citations) point your reader to specific entries on the References page. These are located throughout the body of your paper, and are used whenever you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information from a source listed on your References page. The in-text citation is generally located at the end of the sentence, or as close as possible to the text in which you quote, paraphrase, or summarize information from a source.

In-text citations include:

  • Last name(s) of the author(s)
  • Year of publication
  • page number(s) for direct quotations

There are a number of ways to cite references:

(1) Within the text, with author name as part of a narrative:

         Smith and Nelson (1999) disputed the Committee’s conclusion.

(2) When using a direct quote (include page number(s)):

 The Committee "repeatedly used misleading data to inform their conclusions" (Smith and Nelson 1999, 139-141).

(3) At the end of a sentence using author name, date and page number in parentheses

         Some researchers strongly dispute the Committee’s conclusion (Smith and Nelson 1999, 139).

(4) On occasion, you may wish to cite a source within another source you are using. In this case, use the as cited in before the indirect source, and mention the source in the text. In this situation, do not cite both articles. Instead, your References page will contain the article by Smith and Nelson only. Clark is merely credited in the text of your paper.

Clark’s study (as cited in Smith and Nelson 1999), indicates that individual Committee members differed in their conclusions.

Citation Examples

 

Electronic magazine article (from a library database)

 

Quotation

 

 
"Triumphant Rheagan and sad little Ashley have been offered a very clear, and very adult, lesson: At a beauty pageant, looks aren't everything. They're the only thing" (Ralston 2001, 132).
Paraphrase
Children learn that looks are more important than anything else. (Ralston 2001, 132)

 

References

List

 

Ralston, Jeannie. 2001. "The High Cost of Beauty." Parenting (November): 132. Accessed January

Electronic journal article (from a library database)

 

Quotation

 

 

 

 

Paraphrase

 


   
   "Results from the current study indicate that women who participated in childhood beauty pageants
    scored significantly higher on measures of body dissatisfaction" (Wonderlich, Ackard, and Henderson     2005, 297).
 
 
     Body dissatisfaction is prevalent among women who participated in beauty pageants as children      (Wonderlich, Ackard, and Henderson 2005, 297).
 
 
References
List
 
Wonderlich, Anna, Diann Ackard, and Judith Henderson. 2005. "Childhood Beauty Pageant Contestants
Associations with Adult Disordered Eating and Mental Health." Eating Disorders 13, no. 3: 291-301. Accessed March 12, 2010. http://0=search.ebscohost.com.library2.pima.edu/login.aspx? direct=true&db=aph&AN=17107849&site=ehost-live&scope=site.

 

Note: list all three authors.  For more than three authors, list first author followed by "et al.".

Web with an author

 
Quotation

 
 
Paraphrase
 
"Such contests may give children the perception that being pretty is the only option for popularity and success, says Maria Summers, an educational psychology professor" (Ransford 1997).
 

Children may get the impression from beauty pageants that being pretty is the only way to be popular or successful (Ransford 1997).
 

 
References
List
 
Ransford, Marc. 1997. "Professor Says Beauty Pageants Aren't For Kids." Ball State University.
 
 

Web with no author – use part of the title

 

Quotation

 
"Liposuction is intended only for body contouring. It is not intended as a means of weight loss." ("Skinny" 2010).
 
Paraphrase  

 

 
Liposuction shouldn't be used as a substitute for weight loss ("Skinny" 2010).
 
References      List

"The Skinny on Liposuction." 2010. U.S. Food and Drug Administration. Accessed June 1,
 
Note: If the publication date or the date of the web page's last modification is not available, use the date when you accessed the webpage.

Book with one author

 
Quotation    
 
 
 
 Paraphrase
 
 
 
References
List
 
"One of the most interesting observations to come out of lizard research during the last ten years or so is the discovery that, in some species, the sex of the young depends on the temperature at which the eggs are incubated" (Mattison 2004, 84).
 
In some species of lizards, the sex of the young is determined by the incubation temperature of the eggs (Mattison 2004, 84).
   
 
Mattison, Christopher. 2004. Lizards of the World. New York: Facts on File.

Book with two or three authors

 
Quotation               
 
"It makes sense to build your duck pond somewhere where you can conveniently watch your duck" (Raethel and Mancini 2005, 14).
 
 
Paraphrase       
 
References
List
 
 
Build a pond where you can easily observe ducks (Raethel and Mancini 2005, 14).
 
 
Raethel, Heinz-Sigurd and Julie R. Mancini. 2005. The Duck Handbook. Hauppauge, NY: Barron's.
 
 Note: list all three authors.  For more than three authors, list first author followed by "et al.". 

 

 

Book with No author – use part of the title

 
Quotation
 
         
         "Bryers is an artist whose work connects with the viewer" (Tucson 7 2005, 2).
Paraphrase
           Bryer's paintings bring viewer and subject together (Tucson 7 2005, 2).
 

 

References

List

                
            The Tucson 7 Rides Again: Harley Brown, Duane Bryers, Don Crowley, Tom Hill, Bob Kuhn,
Howard Terpning. 2005. Tucson, AZ: Tucson Museum of Art.