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Whenever you refer to ideas, information, statistics, images, concepts, facts or anything else that you found from an outside source, you need to let your readers know where you found that information. Typically, this is done by quoting, paraphrasing, or summarizing the information, and then citing the authors that produced it.
What's the difference between quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing, and when do you do it?
Quoting - using an original section of text, word-for-word. When do you use a quotation?
Paraphrasing - putting information into your own words. Paraphrases are generally the same length or slightly shorter than the original text. Paraphrasing well shows your understanding of the source material. Paraphrasing may be used instead of a summary because it is more specific. You may choose to paraphrase when:
Summarizing - taking the key points of source text and putting them into your own words. Summaries are generally much shorter than the original text. You may choose to summarize:
In every case, you will need to cite the original source text using parenthetical citations, and include the citation for the original source on your References List.
For short quotations used in the text of the paper, use quotation marks. The author-date information in parentheses should be inserted directly after the final quotation mark, with the period after the citation. For quotations longer than 5 lines, you should use a block quotation. Block quotes use no quotation marks. The complete quotation is indented 5 spaces from the left margin, has a space before and after the quote, is usually single spaced, and often introduced with a colon.
In Text Quotation using the Notes-Bibliography Style
On the subject of growing old, Mark Twain said "Aging is an issue of mind over matter. If you don't mind, it doesn't matter" (Stoneley 1992, 94).
Block Quotation using the Author-Date Style