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Citing Sources: Citing websites, online videos, blog posts, and tweets

A guide to citing sources in MLA, APA, and Chicago format.

General Tips

Citing websites and online resources:

  • If the website name is the same as the publisher, leave out the publisher.
  • You can skip any elements that your web site lacks. For example, If there is no date, skip that element.
  • Only use the www. for the url and leave out the http:// or https://.


 General Format for Web Sites

Author(s). “Title of the Page or Title of the Article on the page.” Title of the Web Site, Publisher or Sponsor, Date of publication, url.




Web site

Strong, Michael. “Forget the World Bank, Try Wal-Mart.” TCS Daily, 22 Aug. 2006, 

  • Include the website url, but omit http:// or https://.


Website with no author

“Parenting Corner Q&A: Immunizations.” American Academy of Pediatrics, Feb. 2009. aap/aap-press-room/pages/american-academy-of-pediatrics-urges-parents-to-



  • If the website name and the website publisher are the same, omit the publisher.


Website with no website name and no date

Mazer, Cary M. "Bernard Shaw: A Brief Biography." Dept. of English, U of Pennsylvania,  Accessed 21 June 2016.

  • If the website content has no clear date, or the date of the content is subject to editing, provide the date you accessed the site.


Online newspaper article

Schiesel, Seth. "Critic's Notebook: Nintendo’s Coming Game System, Wii U." New

York Times, 07 June 2012,



Online book

Krensky, Beth, and Seana Lowe Steffen. Engaging Classrooms and Communities through

Art: A Guide to Designing and Implementing Community-based Art Education.

Altamira, 2009. Google Books,


Video from a library database

Aftershock: The Hunt for Gravitational Waves. BBC,  2015.  Films on Demand, 
Online video
jdtravers (John Travers). iPad in Schools. 12 Apr. 2010. YouTube, uploaded by Mike Smith, 28 June. 2012,


Ted talk video

​Raqib, Jamila. “The Secret to Effective Nonviolent Resistance.” TED, Nov. 2015,  

Blog entry

Nielson, Lisa. "Parents Don’t Look the Other Way." The Innovative Educator,  27 May 2012,



Sohaib Athar [@ReallyVirtual]. “Helicopter hovering above Abbottabad at 1AM (is a rare event).” Twitter,

1 May 2011, 3:58 p.m.,

  • Use the entire Tweet as the title.