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Citing Sources: Citing other common formats

A guide to citing sources in MLA, APA, and Chicago format.


General Formats


Producer, P. P. (Producer), & Director, D. D. (Director). (Date of

publication). Title of motion picture [Motion picture].

Country of origin: Studio or distributor.




Items in green indicate variations in the citation based on the format.


Film (seen in theater or on DVD)

Colson, C. (Producer), & Boyle, D. (Director). (2008). Slumdog millionaire [Motion picture]. United Kingdom: Warner Brothers.

  • For films, include the producers, director, year of publication, title of the film, followed by [Motion picture], country of publication, and distributor.


TV program

Holland, S. (Writer), & Cendrowski, M. (Director. (2009). The pirate solution. [Television series episode]. The big bang

       theory. Los Angeles, CA: Chuck Lorre Productions.

Lucas, T., & Cort, J. (Producers). (2006, October 31). Monsters of the

Milky Way [Television broadcast]. Boston: WGBH Educational Foundation.



Ritts, H. (1988). Woman in Sea, Hawaii [Photograph], Retrieved April 12, 2006,

           from: www.herbritts.com                  

[Untitled photograph of a baby chimpanzee]. Retrieved April 12, 2006, from