Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. (n.d.). COVID-19
United States cases by county. Johns Hopkins University &
Medicine. Retrieved April 15, 2020, from
Social Media Posts
Author name. (Date). Title of post [Format]. Platform. url
Interviews, Email, Classroom Lectures
Personal communication such as interviews, emails and in-person classroom lectures should be cited in-text only and not in the References list. See example in the in-text citations section.
Note: Links can be either active or inactive (ask your instructor if they have a preference)
Webpage, group author, no date
Oral Health Foundation. (n.d.). Fluoride. https://www.dentalhealth.org/fluoride
For website dates: use last published or last updated if there is no firm date.
Webpage which is regularly being updated (use Retrieved date)
John Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. (n.d.). United States cases by county. Johns Hopkins
University & Medicine. Retrieved April 15, 2020, from https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/us-map
Webpage, article by an individual author
Arcaro, J. (2019, September 29). Does fluoride varnish waste dental hygienists time? Today's
With website content, you should always check for an individual author.
Hopeful activist [@hopefulactivist]. (2020, June 21). Protest has turned violent towards the
police. @washingtonpost #chgzhere [Tweet]. Twitter. https://twitter.com/hopefulactivist/status/2651151366
Pima Arts. (2020, June 23). Facemask project is still going strong! [Video]. Facebook. https://tinyurl.com/y8gkc8sg
For long Facebook urls you can create a shortened url.
Pima Community College Library. (2020, June 17). Enjoy your books [Infographic]. Instagram.
Use [Photograph] or [Infographic] or [Video] when appropriate.
Online forum post
Smithsonian. (20, May 22). Smithsonian educators identified online learning resources for teachers across the
country [Online forum post]. Reddit.
OpenAI. (2023, January 17). [ChatGPT response to a prompt about three prominent themes in Emily Dickinson’s poetry]. https://chat.openai.
Items in green indicate variations in the citation based on the format.