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Chicago Style, Notes-Bibliography System: Footnotes and endnotes

Citation Format

In the Notes-Bibliography system, your in-text citation will start with a superscipt number at the end of the sentence:
"An American invention, the flapper was moulded by fashion influences from Paris and modern advertising."1
Then, cite the source of the quotation in a numbered note that provides information about the source.  Notes will be at the bottom of the page (footnotes) or in a list at the end of the paper or at the end of a chapter (endnotes).  All notes have the same general form.
1. Stephen Gundle, Glamour, a History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 160.
If you use another quote from the same source, you can shorten the subsequent notes:
5. Gundle, Glamour, 12.
If you are citing the same source consecutively, you can use the term Ibid.  If the source is the same, but the page numbers differ, include the page numbers for the Ibid. note.
8. Ibid., 112.
In most cases, sources are also listed in a bibliography at the end of the paper.  It should include every source cited in the notes and possibly research sources which were not cited in notes.   The bibliography repeats much of the same information about research sources found in the notes, but uses a slightly different format.

Sample Notes

Sample Notes

Book, single author

     1. Wallace E. Dixon, Twenty Studies that Revolutionized Child Psychology (UpperSaddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2003), 110-11.

Book, two or more authors

     1. Erick J. Mash and David A. Wolfe, Abnormal Child Psychology (Belmont, CA:Wadsworth, 1999), 47.

Book without an author

     1. The Good Housekeeping Illustrated Book of Childcare: From Newborn to Preteen (New York: Hearst Books, 1995), 221.

Book with an editor

     1. James D. Torr, ed., Crime and Criminals (San Diego: Greenhaven Press, 2004), 301.

Electronic book

     1. Jay C. Thomas and Michel Hersen, eds., Understanding Research in Clinical and Counseling Psychology (Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 2003), 103-4, accessed September 2,2012,

Book in multiple editions

     1. Ray E. Helfer, Ruth S. Kempe, and Richard D. Krugman, The Battered Child, 5th ed. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997), 157-58.

Chapter in an anthology or edited book

     1. George W. Brown, "Emotion and Clinical Depression: An Environmental View," in Handbook of Emotions, 2nd ed., ed. Michael Lewis, and Jeanette M. Haviland-Jones (New York: Guilford Press, 1999), 75.

Print journal article

     1. James Griffin, “What Do Happiness Studies Study?," Journal of Happiness Studies 8, no. 1 (March 2007): 139-148.

Electronic journal article

     1. James Griffin, “What Do Happiness Studies Study?," Journal of Happiness Studies 8, no. 1 (March 2007): 139-148, accessed February 15, 2012,


     1. Shana Rose, "Multi-talented Student Works Multimedia," Aztec Press, May 8, 2014, accessed June 18, 2014,

Twitter and Facebook

     1. Organizing for Action, post to Barack Obama's Twitter page, June 19, 2014, accessed June 19, 2014,

Youtube video

    1. “Alexander Wang - Vogue Voices” (YouTube video), posted by Vogue, April 3, 2013, accessed June 17, 2014,


     1. Yvonne Royer, interview by Bill Levy, Farmer’s Hour, July 27, 1990, accessed July 5, 2015,

Motion pictures

     1. The General, directed by Buster Keaton, (Joseph M. Schenck, 1927), DVD (Allied Artists, 2005).

Television programs

     1. The Big Bang Theory, season 1, episode 7, "The Dumpling Paradox,” directed by Mark Cendrowski, aired November 5, 2007, on CBS, DVD (Warner Home Video, 2008), disc 1.

Identation and Spacing

Footnotes and endnotes are idented in the same way as a paragraph:
     1. Stephen Gundle, Glamour, a History (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008), 160.
Citations in the bibliography have a "hanging indent":
Gundle, Stephen. Glamour, a History.
Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008.
Footnotes and bibliography entries should be single spaced with an extra space between entries.