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ART 130 - West - Art and Culture: Prehistoric through Gothic: Contextual Analyses

Reliquary Casket with Champlevé Enamels of Sharp Colors

Germany, Lower Saxony, Hildesheim (?), early 12th century. Reliquary Casket with Champlevé Enamels of Sharp Colors. early 1100s. Artstor,

This reliquary casket lid illustrates the Lamb of God surrounded by the symbols of the four Evangelists, the authors attributed with the four gospels of the Christian bible: Matthew - a Winged Man or Angel, Mark - Winged Lion, Luke - Winged Ox, and John - Rising Eagle. These symbols are taken first from the Prophet Ezekiel (1:1-21) and the Book of Revelation (4:6-8) and prompted St. Irenaeus (140-202 A.D.) to liken them to the four Gospel writers because of the content of their respective Gospels. Early Christian art also employed the symbol of the lamp to refer to Christ. The foundations of the symbol derive from the Bible. When John the Baptist saw Jesus approaching he said, "Behold the Lamb of God, behold him who taketh away the sin of the world" (John 1:29). The Lamb also appears in the Book of Revelation as a representation of Christ. The lamb, historically a sacrificial animal, symbolizes gentleness, sweetness, innocence, meekness. With the crucifix and halo added, the lamb represents Christ, sacrificed for the salvation of all, suffering yet triumphant over sin and death.

Pectoral of Princess Sithathoryunet, Gold, Amethyst, Turquoise and Garnet - Egypt, Mid. Kingdom-Dyn. XII--2131-1785 BC

Pectoral of Princess Sithathoryunet. c.1897-1878 B.C. Artstor,

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