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PSY 289 - Downtown - Psychology Research Methods: APA In-text citations

APA style, 7th ed.: In-text citations

In-text citations: Two styles


Smith (1997) found that some newborns return smiles.



One study found that some newborns return smiles (Smith, 1997).



Smith, S. S. (1997). Neonate responses to smiling. Child Development Research, 88(2), 34-41.


In-text citations

Good news!  In APA Style, 7th edition, it is much easier to do in-text citations.

1. Before you cite, always start with a properly formed reference.

2. Count the number of authors listed in the reference.

3. Form your in-text citations like this:

  • For ONE author

    • Parenthetical:     (Smith, 2007)
    • Narrative:           Smith (2007) found that . . .
  • For TWO authors

    • Parenthetical:    (Smith & Jones, 1986) 
    • Narrative:           Smith and Jones (1986) found that . . .
  • For THREE OR MORE authors

    • Parenthetical:    (Garcia et al., 2018)
    • Narrative:          Garcia et al. (2019) found that . . .